Was Mozart a Freemason?
  • Geremia
    Posts: 111
    Is it true Mozart (1756-1791) was a Freemason for the last seven years of his life? If so, this would explain, e.g., The Magic Flute, which has Freemasonic references in it and which premiered in 1791. He also began his Requiem in 1791, as a Freemason. Some have argued that his other music contains Freemasonic innuendo, too.

    Thus, if he was truly a Freemason, should "Mozart Requiem Masses" like this one celebrated by a FSSP priest be allowed? This priest even explicitly prays for Mozart's soul at the Oratio that he chants after the choir finishes the Kyrie.

    Here's an article claiming Mozart was both Catholic and Freemason! (One cannot be both.)

    UPDATE: From the Grove Music Online entry for "Masonic music":

    3. Mozart's masonic music.


    Like many of his contemporaries in the Austria of the Enlightenment, Mozart found the ideals of freemasonry enormously attractive. Though a Catholic, he was initiated into the first degree of the Craft, that of Apprentice (Lehrling), on 11 December 1784 in the lodge ‘Zur Wohltätigkeit’ in Vienna. His contact with freemasonry antedated his initiation, however: as early as 1773 he had written incidental music (k345/336a) for T.P. Gebler's masonic play Thamos, König in Ägypten, and in 1778 he at least considered writing a melodrama on Otto von Gemmingen's ‘masonic’ libretto Semiramis (von Gemmingen was later to be the Venerable of Mozart's first lodge). Mozart's progress through the early stages of freemasonry was fairly rapid: he reached the third degree, that of Master, by April 1785, and it seems that part of his contribution to his lodge included musical performance. For example, Mozart and his friend and lodge brother Anton Stadler, the clarinettist, organized a concert at their lodge for 20 October 1787 (see Nettl, 1932) with a programme including specifically masonic works (hymns, Mozart's cantata Die Maurerfreude k471, and two symphonies by the freemason Paul Wranitzky) as well as apparently non-masonic ones, notably a concerto for basset-horn and another for clarinet – both instruments, however, being held in high regard in masonic circles. Besides such performing activities Mozart composed a number of works for special occasions at Viennese lodges, especially during his first two years of membership. The cantata Dir, Seele des Weltalls k429/468a is thought to have been composed for a masonic celebration to which non-members were invited, and the song Gesellenreisek468, on a text by Joseph von Ratschky, was composed as a welcome to new Journeymen (Gesellen) entering the second degree of the Craft. Die Maurerfreude was composed in 1785 to honour Ignaz von Born, secretary of the Austrian Grand Lodge and a leading moral and intellectual figure in Vienna. The brief Maurerische Trauermusik k477/479a is now thought to have been written for the installation of a Master, as that ritual includes funerary imagery, not, as has been suggested, for the memorial service of two of Mozart's lodge brothers (it was performed on the latter occasion, but was composed in July 1785, several months before the brothers' death). These works, along with the much later cantatas Die ihr des unermesslichen Weltalls Schöpfer ehrt k619 and Laut verkünde unsre Freude k623, are properly considered masonic music, because they were explicitly intended for use in various aspects of the ritual, and they incorporate typically masonic musical symbols. Such is not the case, curiously, with a number of Mozart's works that have been adopted by the Craft for ceremonial use, including the Lobegesang auf die feierliche Johannisloge k148/125h, the Marian gradual Sancta Maria k273, the Adagio and Fugue in C minor k546, the Adagio and Rondo in C k617 and the motet Ave verum corpus k618.


    Musical reflections of masonic imagery in Mozart's works are seen most clearly in his best-known masonic work, Die Zauberflöte (1791). The symbolism of the libretto (written by a freemason, Emanuel Schikaneder) merits close attention. The trials to which the two couples are subjected are thought to replicate those of the different stages of masonic initiation, and the relative success of worldly and spiritual attitudes in entering the mysteries of the Craft is reflected in the denial of initiation to Papageno and Papagena. Tamino and Pamina, by virtue of their strength of character and willingness to seek higher wisdom, are welcomed into the brotherhood, which is represented by a chorus of priests led by Sarastro, a character said to have been modelled on Ignaz von Born. The Queen of Night and her Ladies represent the unenlightened state, as does, ultimately, the dark Monostatos (for a detailed literary and musical analysis of the opera as a masonic parable see Chailley, 1968).


    Musical symbolism directly related to masonic rites and images has been found in Mozart's score. Chailley argued that the tonal scheme of the opera reflected the changing attitudes of the characters and emphasized their worldly or spiritual ambitions. Thus the key of E♭ serves as the perfect masonic tonality, the three flats of its signature reflecting both the threefold initiation rite and the three pillars of the ‘temple of humanity’; the relative minor (C) symbolizes an incomplete grasp of masonic ideals, while sharp keys are thought to represent worldly interests, and the neutral key of C major, according to Chailley, serves as the context for oracular statements. This thesis remains speculative, but may be supported by the fact that most of Mozart's explicitly masonic music, such as the cantatas k429/468a and 471, is in the ‘masonic’ tonality of E♭. Another aspect of masonic symbolism, reflected in rhythmic motifs, may be found in Die Zauberflöte. The number three has various ritual meanings in the Craft, the most common ones being an association with the third degree or Masters of the lodge and the representation of the three pillars of the temple. This is represented by various rhythmic ideas, of which the threefold repetition of chords is the most obvious (Chailley has further pointed out that the number five, associated with women's lodges, is also used).

    Thus, it seems Mozart we pretty deeply involved in the Freemasonic heresy. We can still hope and pray he had a deathbed reversion, though.
    Thanked by 1Andris Amolins
  • The 1982 book Mozart and the Masons by the late H.C. Robbins Landon - better known for his work on Haydn - is as detailed an analysis of the topic as anyone not a full-time Mozart scholar is likely to need. I am not (to put it mildly) a full-time Mozart scholar. Suffice it to say here, on the evidence of such musicological reading as I've done, that:

    (a) yes, Mozart did join a lodge;

    (b) he was hardly unknown among Austrian Catholics and, particularly, Austrian Catholic musicians of his time in doing this (Haydn was a Mason; so was J. N. Hummel; the jury is still out as to whether Beethoven ever was);

    (c) the widespread belief that Mozart was murdered by Masons (ostensibly for having revealed craft secrets in The Magic Flute) belongs to the realms of frenzied conjecture, though it never seems to die out entirely, as perusal of Catholic discussion groups' online noticeboards will confirm. (Among the upholders of the theory was that dear charmer General Ludendorff.)

    I hope this helps a bit.
    Thanked by 2CHGiffen Geremia
  • Liam
    Posts: 2,998
    Holy Roman Emperor Francis I (the husband of Maria Theresa) was a Freemason, so I would imagine that the papal decrees were never permitted to be promulgated in local churches (his son, Joseph II, took broad view of the imperial power over the Church) during Mozart's life. (The French monarchs, for example, took several generations before allowing Tridentine reforms to be implemented....)
  • CharlesW
    Posts: 8,287
    Masonry was very popular in those days, but now seems a bit silly. We have our own forms of "enlightenment" that crowds seek and rave about, such as eastern mysticism. The wages of Zen are rewarding and rewarded in our culture. Anyone know the secret handshake?
  • melofluentmelofluent
    Posts: 3,902
    Masonry was very popular in those days, but now seems a bit silly

    Try telling that to Voris.
    Can't we waste bandwidth and time more amusingly by invoking Rosicrucians, Zoroastrians or Bahai's?
  • jpal
    Posts: 365
    Luckily, the composer's sanctity (or lack of it) is not a determining factor in the liturgical appropriateness of the music, except maybe very indirectly.

    Otherwise I'd be in big trouble for having my choir sing my own compositions. And I wouldn't touch anything by Jeff Ostrowski. Everyone knows what a charlatan that man is.

    This priest even explicitly prays for Mozart's soul at the Oratio that he chants after the choir finishes the Kyrie.

    What? Prayers for the dead? At a Requiem Mass? Outrageous!

    I read something that said EVERYONE who works in the VATICAN is a MASON, including the POPES!!!
    Thanked by 1R J Stove
  • Liam
    Posts: 2,998
    Zoroastrians

    Hey, that's a religion that goes waaaaay back and still an important sub-unit of Parsi culture.
  • CharlesW
    Posts: 8,287
    Can't we waste bandwidth and time more amusingly by invoking Rosicrucians, Zoroastrians or Bahai's?


    Now, Now, Charles, I am not from CA. My exposures are limited to the pseudo-crazy, not the genuine articles. Did know a Bahai once. A peaceful soul. Also knew some Sikhs - you know, Sikh and ye shall not mind. I think they were CA Sikhs since they wore pastel turbans.

    And I wouldn't touch anything by Jeff Ostrowski. Everyone knows what a charlatan that man is.


    A genuine rogue! One of the Big 4 Catholic publishers. Talk about evil empires!

    Everyone at the Vatican a Mason? Thank God! I thought they were all Democrats.
    Thanked by 2jpal chonak
  • During Mozart's lifetime, the papal bull In eminenti was in force. Although it does prohibit to join the lodges it does not impose any automatic censures for it. It merely states that members are suspect of heresy and investigations should be launched. It somehow seems unlikely that any process was started against Mozart, at least, I have not heard of any condemnatory verdict as a result of such. Thus, in external forum, he could be be guilty of disobedience, at most, provided he knew the content of the bull. Since, as Liam wrote above, the 'most Catholic and Christian' emperors did not allow its promulgation in their realm, chances are the composer was a bona fide Catholic after all.
  • I denounce myself. I was an idol-worshipping heathen until about 2005 or so. None of my earlier sacred music should be used in the liturgy. I also denounce Bortnyansky, Cherubini, Gounod, Hummel, Albert Hay Malotte, Pleyel, and Samuel Wesley, all of whom were Masons.
  • jpal
    Posts: 365
    And Count Basie, Duke Ellington, George Gershwin, Al Jolson, Louis Armstrong too? Well there goes my iTunes collection!
  • melofluentmelofluent
    Posts: 3,902
    jpal,
    I see you might have endured Voris' oh so grave denunciation video as well. I'm mildly surprised that he and others haven't advanced the notion that altar girls are all likely Rainbow Girls that Bl.JPtG just thought would enliven the youth.
    Thanked by 1jpal
  • Geremia
    Posts: 111
    @Andris Amolins: In Eminenti said:
    they must stay completely clear of such Societies, Companies, Assemblies, Meetings, Congregations or Conventicles, under pain of excommunication for all the above mentioned people, which is incurred by the very deed without any declaration being required, and from which no one can obtain the benefit of absolution, other than at the hour of death, except through Ourselves or the Roman Pontiff of the time.
    So, the very act of joining Freemasonry excommunicates oneself. This is because one takes oaths contrary to the Faith, even if Freemasonry claims it respects the faiths of its members; it does not. See ex-32° Freemason John Salza's excellent talk "Why Catholics Cannot be Masons."
  • Freemasonry is goofy, no doubt. People can be obsessed with sniffing out masons under every rock.

    So the people I find most credible and compelling are not the conspiracy types, but exorcists who have to work with people suffering spiritual problems as a result of themselves or ancestors having taken Masonic oaths and the curses that apply if the oaths are broken.
    That's no laughing matter. Crazy, wicked stuff. For that reason one I couldn't be happier that secret societies of all nutty stripes are on their way out.
    Thanked by 1Jeffrey Quick
  • melofluentmelofluent
    Posts: 3,902

    I couldn't be happier that secret societies of all nutty stripes are on their way out.

    Why sweet chil' o' mine, you know somethin' we dunno? You're a secret dispensationalist? Wait, wait, don't tell me!
  • Liam
    Posts: 2,998
    Geremia

    Well, canon law didn't quite work the same way before it was codified. IIRC, things like this actually had to be promulgated at the local level, and that's where the civil power could prevent it from binding fully. If anything, the effectiveness of the papal writ in the 18th century was nearing its nadir.
  • chonakchonak
    Posts: 6,771
    Isn't that interference by the civil power how the Jesuits survived in Russia when they were suppressed elsewhere?

    (Ah, the good old days.)
  • I meant they're on their way out of fashion. :)
  • Liam
    Posts: 2,998
    Chonak

    Yes. Also Frederick the Great refused to let the bull of suppression be promulgated in Prussia/Brandenburg.
  • Out of curiosity, has anyone seen - I haven't - this 1934 Freemasonry-related movie? (Which was a remake of a 1915 movie, which, in turn, was apparently based on a pre-1914 theatrical hit from London's West End.)

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Are_You_a_Mason?_(1934_film)

    I know little about American Freemasonry; but the go-to guy on the topic of Freemasonry in my homeland (Australia) is the Sydney (Catholic) historian James Franklin, who correctly observes - inter alia - that "Almost all of the conservative [i.e. anti-Labor-Party] Prime Ministers up to 1972 — [Sir Edmund] Barton, [Sir George Reid], [Sir Joseph] Cook, [Viscount Stanley] Bruce, [Sir Earle] Page, [Sir Robert] Menzies, [Sir Arthur] Fadden, [Sir John] McEwen, [Sir John] Gorton and [Sir William] McMahon — were Masons." Since none of these worthies could be described as being actuated by revolutionist sentiments, Australian Freemasonry overall appears to have been much more tepid than post-1789 Continental European, let alone Latin American, lodges were elsewhere. (Admittedly, most of the above Prime Ministers gave voice on a few occasions to a certain mild, lazy anti-Catholic prejudice, if their biographers are to be believed; yet this was at least as much anti-Irish as anti-Roman.)

    http://web.maths.unsw.edu.au/~jim/masons.pdf
  • chonakchonak
    Posts: 6,771
    I recommend William Whalen's Christianity and American Freemasonry, which reviews the historical issues and the doctrinal problems.

    For readers seeking an article-length treatment of the issue: he also wrote a report on American Freemasonry for the US bishops, which the pastoral practices committee presented with their statement confirming the incompatibility of Masonic membership with the Catholic faith. Whalen also describes how some Catholics became confused on the issue due to statements from various Church officials.
  • Thanks, Chonak, these documents were hitherto entirely unfamiliar to me.
  • Adam WoodAdam Wood
    Posts: 6,270
    I heard Bach was a Reptilian alien.

    image
  • CharlesW
    Posts: 8,287
    I heard Bach was a Reptilian alien.


    Even worse! He was a Lutheran AND a mathematician! ;-)
    Thanked by 1ZacPB189
  • CHGiffenCHGiffen
    Posts: 3,506
    As a mathematician, I resemble part of that remark. Grrrrrr.
  • chonakchonak
    Posts: 6,771
    Where? In Leipzig, when he was hired as cantor, he had the task of teaching Latin (and he hired a substitute to do the job for him).
  • Well, if he wasn't a mathematician, he certainly more than dabbled in numerology.
  • CharlesW
    Posts: 8,287
    It is interesting that at his death, he was remembered more as a mathematician and an organ builder. Not so much as a composer. Some even indicated his music had worn out its welcome with audiences and congregations. Not surprising since music was undergoing a transitional period.
  • Adam WoodAdam Wood
    Posts: 6,270
    reptilian alien

    lutheran mathematician

    potato, potato
    Thanked by 2CharlesW irishtenor
  • CHGiffenCHGiffen
    Posts: 3,506
    Before you go all googly-foogly ga-ga over the notion that Bach was a practicing mathematician, delving into dark mysteries and occult arts ... forget it, as it is almost all complete speculation about practices that are, in essence, no deeper than the "mathematical" (which should probably be read as "numerological") practices of many earlier composers of the Renaissance and Baroque.

    There are numerous earlier examples in, say, the work of Thomas Crecquillon (c. 1505-1557) of such cleverly contrived musical devices. Even earlier, Benedictus Gesius (c. 1492-1544) composed an 8-part Agnus Dei for two choirs, publishing only the SATB parts for the first choir, since the parts for the second choir are simply retrograde canons of the corresponding parts in the first choir. These are only two examples from many. Nevertheless, Bach's genius was unparalleled in its time, and hence it comes as no surprise that he was a master of techniques that were in use before is time, as well as a superbly inventive creator of music in his own right.

    Was Bach aware and even adept at some mathematics (and physics) concepts? Yes, of course, he was. He was well-acquainted with ideas of tuning and famously explored these ideas in the WTC, and there is speculation(!) that he composed the WTC for a 1/5 comma temperament. Tuning issues went back centuries before Bach. Yet Bach understood a lot more, too, and was brilliant enough to be an expert at every aspect of pipe organ building and playing, in addition to composing.

    Was Bach's awareness and attention to the Trinity evidence that he was obsessed with mathematics in his compositions? No. Does his use of a C-sharp in "Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen" as a symbol of Christ's Crucifixion mean he was using mathematics? No. In these and other things, Bach was expressing in musical terms his own deeply felt religious convictions ... none of them particularly Lutheran but, rather, Christian.

    Musicians ... composers ... used "mathematics" long before and long since Bach. A few even used some sophisticated ideas ... or were discovered later to have formed their music into naturally occurring patterns that they didn't even realize. A very few composers were practicing mathematicians. Bach wasn't one of them.
  • chonakchonak
    Posts: 6,771
    I don't think we'd want to get to the point where we would label every composer who wrote an isorhythmic motet, for example, a mathematician. It's just the use of a little arithmetic, or a little patterning.
    Thanked by 1CHGiffen
  • CharlesW
    Posts: 8,287
    Yes, but it is much easier to hate mathematicians. ;-) And if they are Lutheran and German too.... LOL.

    I know it may shock you, but I play some Bach and enjoy some of his music. Is he my favorite composer? No, he isn't. Bach reflected a time, place, and culture in his music as do most other composers. The exceptions would be those who deliberately write in no longer current styles. For better or worse, the world has changed since Bach's time, and that particular culture no longer exists. I can't imagine even the Lutherans today sitting still for those lengthy cantatas.
  • CHGiffenCHGiffen
    Posts: 3,506
    *Rant mode on*
    Yes, but it is much easier to hate mathematicians.

    Then CW, go ahead and hate me if you must, because I am a mathematician (B.A. in Mathematics, 1961, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison; Ph.D. in Mathematics, 1964, Princeton Univ.; Member School of Mathematics, Inst. for Adv. Study, 1964-1966 & 1976-77; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellowship in Mathematics, 1969-71; Gast Prof. der Mathematik, Univ. Heidelberg, Germany, 1970-71; Univ. of Va. mathematics faculty, 1966-2001).

    Damning Bach (or anyone else, including me) as a mathematician is about the same as damning a novelist as a writer of want-ads.

    While not Lutheran or German, I don't hate people who are. Hate has no business in our endeavors. You might as well hate the Methodist, Episcopalian, and once almost Lutheran child of mixed Congregationalist-Presbyterian parents. Oh, wait! ... that would be I. It took until 1982 for me to discover my Catholic faith. Some non-Catholics have never had the chance to make such a discovery, through no fault of their own and even at times abetted by the prejudice and bigotry of others, including some Catholics that throw impediments up against these poor souls. In Bach's time, it is highly unlikely that the environment and culture in which he lived and moved made it possible for him to convert, in all good conscience, to Catholicism.

    *Rant mode off*
  • Adam WoodAdam Wood
    Posts: 6,270
    If we argue amongst ourselves, the Reptilians win.
    Thanked by 1CHGiffen
  • Disputation is not arguing.
    Besides, 'argument', apprehended correctly, is not discordant bickering.

    And, Bach's oeuvre constitutes the Summa Musicae, a fit musical companion for Aquinas. Nor is it time-bound.
  • chonakchonak
    Posts: 6,771
    Most people don't know any mathematicians other than their math teachers at school, who don't really represent the profession.

    If I may generalize from my observations, academic and research mathematicians tend to be inclined to very abstract thinking, very heady people, unconcerned with appearances, including their own; more concerned about getting things right than about sparing someone else's feelings, often jovial, sometimes abrupt or socially awkward, willing to examine counter-arguments, but firm or even stubborn about their own convictions unless and until convinced otherwise, and accustomed to not being understood by people not part of that world.

    --RC [MS in Applied Math (Computer Science)]
  • melofluentmelofluent
    Posts: 3,902
    http://www.dailydawdle.com/2011/10/10-epic-portraits-of-jesus-and.html
    "He knows when you've been bad or good, so be good for goodness' sake!"
    I saw Jurassic Park, the reptiles always win, 'specially if you're the "bloodsucking attorney" hiding in a porta potty. (Tho' I took glee in the cute little spitting dragons that tortured Newman [from Seinfeld] and presumably consumed him, no mean feat, for his dastardly greed!)

    Disputation is not arguing. Besides, 'argument', apprehended correctly, is not discordant bickering.

    "Oh no, you've come to 'contradiction,' Arguments are down the hall."
    No it's not.
  • CharlesW
    Posts: 8,287
    I should have put that in purple. I don't hate anyone, though sometimes dislike can enter into the picture. Converts are a mixed blessing. Some are great, and some probably caused the Protestants to breathe a sigh of relief when they left.

    Bach - did he ever have any inclination or desire to convert to Catholicism? Not that I can tell. He seemed to be a happy, German Lutheran, writing music for German Lutheran worship. Some of that music doesn't seem to work well for Catholic worship, also true for some other Protestant composers.

    With a computer science degree and having worked in government agencies and national labs for 25 years, I am familiar with the folks Richard described. We called them, and ourselves, nerds. ;-)
    Thanked by 1R J Stove
  • You all had better behave yourselves, or I'm going to post more Putin photos. No, not the one of CharlesW and the shirtless Putin seated together on the organ bench, that melo had mentioned in a previous thread. Chonak doesn't like those kind.
    Thanked by 1CharlesW
  • CharlesW
    Posts: 8,287
    I am the one with the biggest muscles. :-)

    Vladimir doesn't like Bach, btw. He is a big fan of Orthodox Russian chant.
    Thanked by 1expeditus1
  • CHGiffenCHGiffen
    Posts: 3,506
    Some careers pursued by mathematicians with advanced degrees:

    football player (quarterback for the Cleveland Browns), ancient historian, classicist, linguist, cryptologist, engineer, economist (Nobel laureate), lawyer, judge, politician, banker, stock broker, physician, surgeon, nurse, EMT, firefighter, composer, conductor, performance musician, artist, architect, actor, fiction writer, priest, nun.

    It is people with little to no understanding of mathematics, viewing it as something way too difficult or weird mumbo-jumbo mental exercises, who don't realize that the vast majority of mathematicians can be and are perfectly reasonable (often more reasonable than most) individuals, conscientious citizens, caring and devoted family members, drinking buddies, often good cooks, and avid lovers of the fine arts.

    Hmm, not at all unlike "ordinary" people. But don't ask me ... I'm one of the weird ones.
    Thanked by 2R J Stove mrcopper
  • CharlesW
    Posts: 8,287
    Mathematicians are ordinary people, for the most part, and I know many of them and have worked with them for years. But before we extol their virtues too much, remember that they have their crazies, too. Anyone remember the Unabomber with a PhD in mathematics? Crazy cuts across all classes of people. I have even heard the vicious rumor that there are chant aficionados who are a little off the beam. ;-)
  • chonakchonak
    Posts: 6,771
    Converts are a mixed blessing.

    Whereas cradle Catholics are . . . ?
  • CharlesW
    Posts: 8,287
    Cradle Catholics were simply there first. Most don't really want to be bothered, and just want to get their mass "obligations" in each Sunday. To a convert, especially converts from non-liturgical churches, the Catholic Church has all the fascination of fantasy land. There is so much stuff, symbols, art, architecture - or at least, there once was. It has been my own observation that converts from Calvinistic churches with more inflexible backgrounds, can become annoying inflexible Catholics. It is alright to convert, just don't annoy the natives too much.

    I have encountered a couple of types of converts. One accepts the Church as it is, warts and all, and works to make the place better. A very good thing. Then there is the type that wants to convert to the Church as it once was. Those folks tend to be unhappy that anything has changed. Many of them end up in the EF, which may be better suited to their expectations.
  • chonakchonak
    Posts: 6,771
    Well, maybe this will help get us back to the original topic: Jonathan Coulton's silly rock song "I'm a Mason Now":
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MGeRHItotCU
  • CHGiffenCHGiffen
    Posts: 3,506
    Crazy cuts across all classes of people.

    It certainly does. Here where I live in Western Wisconsin, a local funeral director (a Catholic) and an intern working at the funeral home were shot to death several years ago, shortly after I moved here. The double murders went unsolved for quite some time, until it was revealed in the news media that police finally had a suspect and were expecting an arrest soon. The lone suspect, a Roman Catholic priest, committed suicide by hanging a day or two later. As it happened, the funeral director had become aware of pedophilia on the part of the priest in question.

    When I was a youth in southern Indiana, a prominent choir director (and member of the faculty of the University of Indiana) was run out of town for pedophilia.

    Nearly every profession has its radicals, perverts, and outliers. None of this is constructive.

    Diminuendo for the innuendo, please. I won't comment further.
  • CharlesW
    Posts: 8,287
    Interesting. I had not heard that one.

    A few years ago, a friend called desperate for an organist to play for a funeral. The original organist had bailed on them for some reason. My friend said I would only need to play a few standard Protestant funeral hymns - no eagles wings - so I agreed to play as a favor to him. When I got to the funeral, there were men wearing aprons decorated with masonic symbols, and practicing strange rituals. Of course, I had stumbled into a masonic funeral. Perhaps that is why the original organist cancelled.
  • Amy
    Posts: 1
    Could someone please "prove" with evidence that Mozart became a freemason at some point in his life? I'm sick of all these baseless achievements the masons try to contribute to their organization.. So if he was a mason which Museum currently holds the documentation proving that? Thank you.
  • chonakchonak
    Posts: 6,771
    Alas, it's probably true. These biographies discuss his affiliation with the lodge:

    * Deutsch, Otto Erich (1965). Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    * Solomon, Maynard (1995). Mozart: A Life. Harper Collins.

    You can probably get access to these books via inter-library loan; have a look there to see what documentation the authors cite.
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